The New South and the New Slavery

Convict Labor in Georgia

Movements for Reform

This minute book consists of a combination of handwritten entries and newspaper clippings that document the educational programs, social activities, civic reform efforts and philanthropic initiatives of the Athens, Georgia-based Athens Woman's Club between the years of 1899 and 1911. The bulk of this material reflects the club's local interests that served the greater Athens and Clarke County area; however, many entries also show how the Athens Woman's Club served in state and national roles, specifically through its associations with the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs and the General Federation of Women's Clubs. The minutes reflect the club's interest in major social reform issues of the Progressive Era, which included the legal regulation of child labor, the improvement of public health facilities and practices and the establishment and modernization of educational facilities. The Athens Woman's Club succeeded in founding both the East and West Athens Free Kindergartens and campaigned for an industrial training school in Tallulah Falls, Georgia. Also of interest in this collection are materials that speak to the club's role in the establishment of a day nursery for local African American children and continued involvement with traveling libraries throughout the state.
This minute book consists of a combination of handwritten entries and newspaper clippings that document the educational programs, social activities, civic reform efforts and philanthropic initiatives of the Athens, Georgia-based Athens Woman's Club between the years of 1899 and 1911. The bulk of this material reflects the club's local interests that served the greater Athens and Clarke County area; however, many entries also show how the Athens Woman's Club served in state and national roles, specifically through its associations with the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs and the General Federation of Women's Clubs. The minutes reflect the club's interest in major social reform issues of the Progressive Era, which included the legal regulation of child labor, the improvement of public health facilities and practices and the establishment and modernization of educational facilities. The Athens Woman's Club succeeded in founding both the East and West Athens Free Kindergartens and campaigned for an industrial training school in Tallulah Falls, Georgia. Also of interest in this collection are materials that speak to the club's role in the establishment of a day nursery for local African American children and continued involvement with traveling libraries throughout the state.
This minute book consists of a combination of handwritten entries and newspaper clippings that document the educational programs, social activities, civic reform efforts and philanthropic initiatives of the Athens, Georgia-based Athens Woman's Club between the years of 1899 and 1911. The bulk of this material reflects the club's local interests that served the greater Athens and Clarke County area; however, many entries also show how the Athens Woman's Club served in state and national roles, specifically through its associations with the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs and the General Federation of Women's Clubs. The minutes reflect the club's interest in major social reform issues of the Progressive Era, which included the legal regulation of child labor, the improvement of public health facilities and practices and the establishment and modernization of educational facilities. The Athens Woman's Club succeeded in founding both the East and West Athens Free Kindergartens and campaigned for an industrial training school in Tallulah Falls, Georgia. Also of interest in this collection are materials that speak to the club's role in the establishment of a day nursery for local African American children and continued involvement with traveling libraries throughout the state.
This minute book consists of a combination of handwritten entries and newspaper clippings that document the educational programs, social activities, civic reform efforts and philanthropic initiatives of the Athens, Georgia-based Athens Woman's Club between the years of 1899 and 1911. The bulk of this material reflects the club's local interests that served the greater Athens and Clarke County area; however, many entries also show how the Athens Woman's Club served in state and national roles, specifically through its associations with the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs and the General Federation of Women's Clubs. The minutes reflect the club's interest in major social reform issues of the Progressive Era, which included the legal regulation of child labor, the improvement of public health facilities and practices and the establishment and modernization of educational facilities. The Athens Woman's Club succeeded in founding both the East and West Athens Free Kindergartens and campaigned for an industrial training school in Tallulah Falls, Georgia. Also of interest in this collection are materials that speak to the club's role in the establishment of a day nursery for local African American children and continued involvement with traveling libraries throughout the state.

At the turn of the twentieth century, Progressive Era activists denounced Georgia’s convict lease system. Pamphlets advocating for human rights and newspaper accounts exposing the physical and sexual violence in convict camps flooded the print market. Reformers urged that if the lease system could not be abolished, then major changes to it were needed. Recommended changes included the creation of separate reformatories and camps for women and adolescents, new measures to protect female convicts from sexual assault, and the creation of policies that enforced the humane treatment of prisoners.