The New South and the New Slavery

Convict Labor in Georgia

Progressive Era Activism

Sickened by the lynchings, mob violence, race riots, restrictive laws, and forced labor practices that jeopardized Black lives and civil rights, prominent African American leaders like Frederick Douglass, Ida B. Wells, and Georgia's Selena Sloan Butler advocated for prison reform.

In local and national women’s club chapters, African American clubwomen spearheaded campaigns for reform. Led by Georgia native Selena Sloan Butler, the Atlanta Women’s Club, in tandem with the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, sent prayer cards and Bibles to male and female prisoners. Butler continued to advocate for prison reform following the abolition of the convict lease system. The Georgia Commission on Interracial Cooperation, an alliance of white and Black women’s clubs across Georgia, secured a Black female jailer to attend the women’s department in a Savannah jail in 1925.